ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS FOR
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TAMARIN planning support system software will be distributed with
the GIS data later in the summer of 2002. Check this page
for updates on its availability.
et al. (1999) recommended a framework to guide the application
of incentive-based policies for encouraging the provision of environmental
services – including biodiversity conservation – by landholders.
This framework, they propose, would enable the simulation of alternative
schemes that would “encourage clarity in the definition of goals
and permit the development of simple, implementable strategies to
reach those goals” (Chomitz et al. 1999,
p. 168). Because land use, opportunity costs, and biodiversity
value vary spatially, the framework was envisioned as a means to
exploit that variation to craft simple, implementable policy options.
In this project
we implemented an analytical framework based upon the suggestions
in Chomitz et al. (1999). Specifically,
we outline the framework and its basis in current conservation science
and economic theory, which are used to define the desired landscape
configuration for the conservation objectives. We then present
a case study in the “Mata Atlântica,” or Atlantic Forest,
region of south Bahia state in Brazil to illustrate an application
of the framework, named TAMARIN (Toolbox for Analysis of
Mata Atlântica Restoration Incentives). We demonstrate
TAMARIN by comparing a series of scenarios, including the
present situation and the likely future trend. The results
indicate the tradeoff between the suitability of sites for conservation
with their value for other purposes.
performs two sets of GIS-based procedures, using a representation
of the study area divided into 98.01 ha planning units (990 x 990
m). First, it assists planning teams to design scenarios and
second to evaluate their economic and ecological consequences.
Scenarios can be created by drawing on an electronic map, by defining
rules for selection based on conservation and/or economic criteria,
or by an external optimization model developed for the project.
Scenarios can be constrained by a maximum budget limit or can be
unconstrained with the total costs being calculated as a consequence
of the plan. The framework can then calculate the effects
of the scenario and create a series of GIS themes, tables, graphics,
and reports that summarize the salient features for comparison with
the present situation and other scenarios.
to TAMARIN, the project developed an external optimizing
land allocation model (Optimal Habitat Patch Selection or OHPAS)
that selects the most cost efficient set of areas for conservation
action that satisfies the desired future landscape configuration,
if feasible within the budget constraint. The optimal solution
is then evaluated in terms of the same socioeconomic and environmental
factors as other scenarios inside TAMARIN. The optimal
scenarios therefore set benchmarks against which scenarios for various
policy instruments can be compared.
K. M., E. Brenes and L. Constantino. 1999. Financing
environmental services: The Costa Rican experience and its implications.
Science of the Total Environment 240: 157-169.
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